playing with linux namespaces
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/* ns_child_exec.c
Copyright 2013, Michael Kerrisk
Licensed under GNU General Public License v2 or later
Create a child process that executes a shell command in new namespace(s).
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <sched.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <stdio.h>
/* A simple error-handling function: print an error message based
on the value in 'errno' and terminate the calling process */
#define errExit(msg) do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
} while (0)
static void
usage(char *pname)
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s [options] cmd [arg...]\n", pname);
fprintf(stderr, "Options can be:\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -i new IPC namespace\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -m new mount namespace\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -n new network namespace\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -p new PID namespace\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -u new UTS namespace\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -U new user namespace\n");
fprintf(stderr, " -v Display verbose messages\n");
static int /* Start function for cloned child */
childFunc(void *arg)
char **argv = arg;
execvp(argv[0], &argv[0]);
#define STACK_SIZE (1024 * 1024)
static char child_stack[STACK_SIZE]; /* Space for child's stack */
main(int argc, char *argv[])
int flags, opt, verbose;
pid_t child_pid;
flags = 0;
verbose = 0;
/* Parse command-line options. The initial '+' character in
the final getopt() argument prevents GNU-style permutation
of command-line options. That's useful, since sometimes
the 'command' to be executed by this program itself
has command-line options. We don't want getopt() to treat
those as options to this program. */
while ((opt = getopt(argc, argv, "+imnpuUv")) != -1) {
switch (opt) {
case 'i': flags |= CLONE_NEWIPC; break;
case 'm': flags |= CLONE_NEWNS; break;
case 'n': flags |= CLONE_NEWNET; break;
case 'p': flags |= CLONE_NEWPID; break;
case 'u': flags |= CLONE_NEWUTS; break;
case 'U': flags |= CLONE_NEWUSER; break;
case 'v': verbose = 1; break;
default: usage(argv[0]);
child_pid = clone(childFunc,
child_stack + STACK_SIZE,
flags | SIGCHLD, &argv[optind]);
if (child_pid == -1)
if (verbose)
printf("%s: PID of child created by clone() is %ld\n",
argv[0], (long) child_pid);
/* Parent falls through to here */
if (waitpid(child_pid, NULL, 0) == -1) /* Wait for child */
if (verbose)
printf("%s: terminating\n", argv[0]);